This is a paper published in the journal Cell, which is a Cell Press journal, an excellent journal. In fact, one of the three apex journals. So for those of you that are curious, papers published in the journal Nature, Science and Cell are considered the sort of Super Bowl, Stanley Cup and NBA championships of publishing.
Before we dive into today's topic, I just want to highlight a particularly interesting set of findings from the literature. This is a study that came out in the journal, Cell Report, Cell Press Journal, excellent journal. It's very relevant to today's topic. In fact, we're going to spend more time with this paper a little bit later in the episode.
This study was published in the journal Cell Report, Cell Press Journal, excellent journal. And the reason I love this study so much is it involved having people, so yes, this was done in humans, sleep in the laboratory. That's not unusual. There's a sleep lab at Stanford, there's sleep labs elsewhere.
Now, the study that I'm referring to is a very recent study that was published again in this terrific Apex journal, Cell, Cell Press Journal. And again, one of the three top journals, Nature Science and Cell are the three top journals. Top because they're the most competitive, but also generally, not always, but generally the most stringent in terms of the review process.
In fact, we are going to talk about one very recently published paper that came out in the journal Cell. Cell is one of the three apex journals, meaning three of the most competitive, most rigorous scientific journals. Those are Nature, Science, and Cell. This particular paper was published in Cell, and I will go into it in more detail later.
I think it's a very important paper. And similar findings have been addressed in mice and in other studies. And now because of this paper, there's now a bunch of other groups working on this issue. There's some evidence previously published in Nature, excellent top tier journal, among the Super Bowl of top three journals being Nature, Science, and Cell.
Before we begin our discussion about sense of self, I want to highlight some very recently published research findings that I believe are immediately actionable, and that everybody should be aware of. These are data that were published by my colleague, Justin Sonnenberg's laboratory at Stanford University School of Medicine, and the data were published in the journal Cell, which is a very, very high stringency cell press journal.
There's a really interesting studypublished just this last year in a relatively new journal. That journal has a kind of an unusual name. It's Helion. I think it's Helion and not Helion, but Helion, H-E-L-I-Y-O-N. This is a Cell Press journal. As far as I can tell, it's a very solid journal. Certainly the Cell Press label is very stringent.
And the paper that you should look to if you want to read more about this came out very recently. This is Zhang et al, Z-H-A-N-G et al, Nature, fabulous journal, definitely one of the apex journals, 2020. So this paper showed that the activation of stress in various forms will deplete these melanocyte stem cells.
This is a paper that was published in Cell Reports, an excellent journal. It's a peer-reviewed paper from a really excellent group looking at skill learning. Now, previously I've talked about how in the attempt to learn skills, the vital thing to do is to get lots of repetitions. You've heard of the 10,000 hours thing.
There's a wonderful paper that describes all the nitty gritty of this. Certainly most people listening, I'm guessing, are not going to be interested in all this detail. But for those of you that you are and you want to delve deep into this, this paper was published in Neuron, Cell Press Journal, excellent journal.
And the paper entitled, Gut Microbiota Targeted Diet's Modulate Human Immune Status was published in the journal Cell, which is among the three top journals, perhaps in the world, Nature, Science and Cell, really being the apex journals for overall science and especially for biomedical sciences. Now, this is a very interesting study.
Paper comes out in a great journal, news releases. It's a really big deal. Their career takes off. 20 years later, a really smart graduate student comes along and says, yeah, but that's loss of function. Doesn't really show gain of function. So let's take a closer look. So they repeat the first experiment and it checks out.
meaning regulation of things that are going on in our brain and body and reward mechanisms. I'm going to return to that in a moment. But first I want to share with you these new findings that were just published in the journal Cell Reports, a Cell Press journal, excellent journal. This was a study that was performed both in mice and it included a crossover study with a human population.
But there are data published in the journal Science, and Science being one of the three apex journals, Science, Nature, Cell, the most stringent journals, data published in the journal Science some years ago, actually by a scientist who I know quite well, his name is Edward Chang, he's a medical doctor now, he's a neurosurgeon, he's actually the chair of neurosurgery at UCSF, and he runs a laboratory where they study auditory learning, neuroplasticity, et cetera.
The new study from the Borges Lab deserves attention, I believe. This is a paper published just recently, February 25th, this year, 2022, in Nature Neuroscience, an excellent journal. And the title of the paper is, "'The Preference for Sugar Over Sweetener Depends on a Gut Sensor Cell.' The Borges Lab has now discovered a neuropod cell, meaning a category of neurons, that can distinguish between sweet things in the gut that contain calories, for instance, sugar, and things in the gut that are sweet
I promise what I'm about to tell you next will forever change the way that you think about your skin and light and the desire to mate and indeed even mating behavior. I think the results are best understood by simply going through the primary data, meaning the actual research on this topic. And to do so, I'm going to review a recent paper that was published in the journal Cell Reports, Cell Press Journal, excellent journal.
We've been told that. You're going to worry yourself sick. And actually there was a paper published in Science, again, one of the top three journals out there. The top three really being Nature, Science and Cell, and then other, of course, excellent journals exist, but this was a paper that came out in Science last year.
And so recently there was a paper that came out in Cell, Cell Press Journal, it's kind of the apex of cell journals, which is phenomenal. This paper showed that ingesting highly processed food leads to more intake of not just highly processed foods, but other types of food in general. There was kind of an overeating compensation generally across foods for people that consume these highly processed foods.
And as I describe this experiment, I think you will come to understand the power of these circuits. I'll provide a link to this study in the caption. The first author is Freeman. The paper was published in Frontiers and Bioscience, but there have been others, papers in Nature Neuroscience, papers in Neuron, Cell Press journals, et cetera, many, many journals, many, many papers.
But as is the case with so many interesting scientific findings, often when there's a negative result, there's a more interesting result nested in that negative outcome. And this is the case in a particular paper I'll share with you now. This is a paper published in the journal, Biological Psychology.
This is a really interesting body of work. It was published just recently, I should say, February, 2022. The title of the paper is "'The Preference for Sugar Over Sweetener Depends on a Gut Sensor Cell'". And to make a long story short, what they showed was there's a category of neuropod cells that recognize sugar in the gut and signal that information about the presence of sugar in the gut to the brain via the pathways we talked about before, the no-dose ganglia, the vagus, dopamine, et cetera, et cetera.
You had this amazing paper at the end of last year, cover article, full article in Nature, showing that essentially a small menu of transcription factors, which control gene expression, et cetera, could essentially reverse the age of neurons in the eye and rescue those cells against damage, essentially allow blind mice to see again and offset degeneration of these retinal cells.
Well, now we know why. It inhibits mast cells and histaminergic mast cells in particular. Earlier, I mentioned a new and very exciting studypublished as a full article in Nature. Full article means that it is a major finding. At the journal Nature, they have letters, which are important findings. They're still very high stringency for getting a letter in Nature published, but the full articles, generally there's only one or two per issue in the weekly edition of Nature.
He passed away. He was not a neuroscientist, a wonderful poet and musician, but not a neuroscientist. Again, the paper was published in Cell Reports, and we will provide a link to the full paper as well. So the takeaway is, if you're trying to learn something, you need to get those reps in, but one way that you can get 20 times the number of reps in is by injecting these little 10 second periods of doing nothing.
The two studies that I'm going to discuss both relate to sleep and sleep states and how to access better sleep. The first one was published in the journal Cell Reports, Cell Press Journal, excellent journal. The title of this paper is "'Rapid and Reversible Control of Human Metabolism by Individual Sleep States.' We will provide a link to the study in the show captions.
And then we said, it looks like it's that cell type. And we went and looked and the data bore that up. But the anatomy drove the search for the particular cell type because we could see it connected in the right place to the right cells. So that creates the hypothesis that lets you go query the physiology, but it can go the other way as well.
Now we're going to make this very concrete and operationalize it, make it very actionable. There was a paper that was published in 2021 from Norman et al. This is a very important paper. It was published in the journal Neuron, which is a cell press journal, excellent journal. The title of the paper gives it away essentially, which is post error recruitment of frontal sensory cortical projections promotes attention.
This is a paper that was published in PNAS, which is the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA. It's a very prestigious journal. For those of you that know PNAS, you know that there are certain papers published in PNAS or there used to be that were not peer reviewed. In recent years, I think all of them have moved to peer reviewed papers.
What we're going to talk about now are peer-reviewed data in very high quality journals like the journal Cell, which is one of the three Apex journals, Science, Nature, Cell, and journals of that sort that point to the gut microbiome and its relationship to acidity of the gut and how the gut microbiome can help enhance autoimmune function and various other aspects of brain and body health.